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Saiba como se proteger de um sequestro digital

25 Jan 2016
Kaspersky sequestro digital

O ransomware vem ganhando notoriedade entre as ciberameaças. Uma vez que um Trojan de ransomware se infiltra em um sistema, criptografa seus arquivos silenciosamente, incluindo seus documentos valiosos, vídeos e fotos. O processo ocorre em segundo plano de modo que a vítima não tem consciência do que está ocorrendo até que seja tarde demais.

Quando o estrago está feito, o Trojan informa ao usuário que seus arquivos foram codificados. Se a vítima quiser reavê-los, terá de pagar o resgate, que tende a ser um valor exorbitante, normalmente em bitcoins. A maioria das vítimas não possui grande conhecimento e experiência em tecnologia -então a inconveniência é maior, pois também têm de descobrir o que são bitcoins e onde obtê-las.

O que torna o ransomware um esquema particularmente problemático é que os arquivos criptografados ainda estão armazenados no computador do usuário.

Aqui vão 10 dicas simples para proteger seus dados.

1) Tenha certeza de fazer backups regulares de seus arquivos importantes. É altamente recomendável criar duas cópias do backup, uma na nuvem (em serviços como Dropbox, Google Drive, etc.) e outra gravada em uma mídia física (HD externo, pendrive, um notebook extra, etc.)

Uma vez que seu backup esteja pronto, tenha certeza de verificar as restrições para os arquivos: seu dispositivo “Plano B” deve possuir apenas permissões de escrita ou leitura, sem a oportunidade de modificar ou apagar arquivos. O seu backup pode salvá-lo em diversas circunstâncias, incluindo a remoção acidental de arquivos críticos ou falhas de drives.

2) Cibercriminosos distribuem e-mails falsos se passando por uma notificação de lojas online ou bancos, atraindo o usuário para clicar em um link malicioso de modo a distribuir malware. Esse método é chamado de phishing. Com isso em mente, melhore suas configurações de spam e nunca abra um anexo enviado por um desconhecido.

3) Não confie em ninguém. Links maliciosos podem ser enviados por seus amigos nas mídias sociais, por colegas ou parceiros de jogos que tenham sido infectados de uma maneira ou de outra.

4) Habilite opções como “Mostrar a extensão de arquivos” nas configurações do Windows. Isso tornará bem mais fácil distinguir arquivos potencialmente maliciosos. Como Trojans são programas, você deve ficar de olho em arquivos com extensões como <<EXE>>, <<vbs>>, e <<SCR>>.

5) Você precisa ficar atento, pois muitos tipos de arquivos familiares podem ser perigosos. Cibercriminosos podem usar diversas extensões para mascarar arquivos como vídeos, fotos, ou um documento (como like hot-chics.avi.exe or report.doc.scr).

6) Atualize regularmente seu sistema operacional, navegador e outros programas. Os criminosos tendem a explorar vulnerabilidades em softwares de modo a comprometer os sistemas.

7) Use um programa de antivírus robusto que consiga proteger seu sistema do ransomware. Recomendamos o Kaspersky Internet Security, que previne vírus de atingirem seu computador, ou caso isso ocorra, proteja arquivos importantes usando suas capacidades especiais.

8) Se você descobrir um processo clandestino ou desconhecido na sua máquina, interrompa a conexão com a internet imediatamente. Se o ransomware não tiver conseguido apagar a chave de criptografia do seu computador, ainda existe uma chance de que você possa restaurar os arquivos. No entanto, as novas versões desse tipo de malware utilizam uma senha predefinida, então essa dica infelizmente não funcionaria nesse caso.

9) Se você der azar de ter seus arquivos encriptados, não pague o resgate, a menos que que o acesso instantâneo de alguns de seus arquivos seja crítico. De fato, cada pagamento abastece esse negócio ilegal que irá prosperar quando mais pessoas forem pegas neste golpe.

10) Caso seus dispositivos sejam infectados por um ransomware, você devia tentar descobrir o nome do malware: talvez seja uma versão antiga e seja relativamente simples restaurar seus arquivos. Os ransomware eram menos avançados no passado.

Além disso, a polícia e especialistas em cibersegurança (incluindo aqueles que trabalham na Kaspersky Lab) colaboram para deter os cibercriminosos e fornecem ferramentas de restauração de arquivos online. Algumas pessoas podem desincriptar seus arquivos sem pagar o resgate.

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